Lillian Wilson

Nudge by Richard H. Thaler

This thought-provoking book explores how subtle behavioural cues can guide us towards making better choices in various aspects of life.


The book has gotten 3.84 ⭐️ on GoodReads.

On any given day, we find ourselves making an astonishing number of decisions, reportedly up to 35,000. While some of these choices, like selecting a pair of shoes or picking a street to walk down, may seem inconsequential, others have the potential to significantly shape our lives. Decisions involving investments or the most effective method of saving for retirement can profoundly influence our future circumstances.

However, amidst this sea of decisions, a puzzling phenomenon arises: why do some individuals consistently make sensible choices, while others, despite understanding the superior option, often lean on intuition or yield to temptations?

Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein penned ‘Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness’ to grapple with these intriguing questions and offer insights into the intricacies of decision-making. Through this book, they unveil a captivating exploration into the processes underlying our choices.

About the authors

Richard H. Thaler is the Charles R. Walgreen Distinguished Service Professor of Economics and Behavioral Science at the University of Chicago’s Graduate School of Business.

Richard H. Thaler (r)

He also directs the Center for Decision Research and co-directs a behavioural economics project at the National Bureau of Economic Research. Thaler’s pioneering work bridges psychology and economics, particularly in behavioural economics and finance.

Cass R. Sunstein is the Robert Walmsley University Professor at Harvard Law School, where he founded and oversaw the Program on Behavioral Economics and Public Policy.

Cass R. Sunstein (r)

He’s widely cited and held the role of Administrator of the White House Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs under the Obama administration.

What is the book about?

‘Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness’ by Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein delves into the ways in which our choices are influenced by our biases and mental shortcuts, leading us to make suboptimal decisions. Drawing on extensive research from behavioural science, the authors demonstrate that the presentation of choices is never neutral and we are all susceptible to cognitive biases that affect our decision-making.

Thaler and Sunstein propose the concept of ‘choice architecture’ or ‘nudges’ to help people make better decisions without limiting their freedom of choice. These nudges involve designing choices in a way that guides individuals towards more rational and beneficial options. The book covers a wide range of topics, including health, finance, and societal decisions, illustrating how nudges can lead to positive outcomes.

Thaler and Sunstein’s book explores how small changes in the way choices are presented can have a significant impact on people’s decisions. Their approach encourages individuals, institutions, and governments to consider the psychological aspects of decision-making and use these insights to create an environment that promotes better choices for individuals and society as a whole.

Table of contents

  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • 1. Biases and Blunders
  • 2. Resisting Temptation
  • 3. Following the Herd
  • 4. When Do We Need a Nudge?
  • 5. Choice Architecture
  • 6. Save More Tomorrow
  • 7. Naive Investing
  • 8. Credit Markets
  • 9. Privatizing Social Security: Smorgasbord Style
  • 10. Prescription Drugs: Part D for Daunting
  • 11. How to Increase Organ Donations
  • 12. Saving the Planet
  • 13. Improving School Choices
  • 14. Should Patients Be Forced to Buy Lottery Tickets?
  • 15. Privatizing Marriage
  • 16. A Dozen Nudges
  • 17. Objections
  • 18. The Real Third Way
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • Index

Key takeaways from ‘Nudge’

1Our decisions go astray when we yield to temptation or act impulsively

In the book ‘Nudge,’ the authors delve into the two-fold aspect of human decision-making: the Automatic System that operates on instinctual responses and the Reflective System which is rooted in logical thinking. The authors elucidate how our reactions to stimuli, such as the infectious laughter of a baby, unfold involuntarily and without conscious awareness. Conversely, tasks requiring deliberate consideration, like solving math problems, necessitate the engagement of the conscious and contemplative Reflective System.

The central theme of the book emphasises the significant role of the Automatic System in shaping our daily decisions due to its efficiency. However, the book cautions against complete dependence on this system as it rests on simplified perceptions and emotional triggers. Consequently, this reliance might lead to misjudgments of risks and unwise choices, influenced by gut feelings that lack substantial grounding. Recognising the dynamic interaction between the automatic and reflective systems provides insight into crafting environments and interventions that guide individuals towards improved decisions. This approach has the potential to enrich various dimensions of our lives.

2Nudges are small adjustments that help us make better decisions

The book highlights the concept of nudges as unobtrusive alterations in the environment that guide individuals toward making better choices. These nudges operate as subtle influences, aiding us in avoiding poor decisions without imposing specific behaviours. Unlike strict prohibitions or persuasive advertisements, nudges provide individuals with the freedom to choose while making the desired option more accessible and appealing. For example, putting fruit in easy-to-see places and moving junk food to less noticeable spots in a cafeteria is a nudge. While companies have utilised nudges for their own purposes, such as prompting certain purchases, the book illustrates that these same techniques can serve more virtuous ends, such as steering people towards healthier alternatives. In essence, nudges harness the power of context to facilitate wiser decision-making.

3Nudges can be used to support the achievement of a goal

The book highlights the effectiveness of nudges in aiding individuals to achieve their goals. The book acknowledges the common challenge of adhering to New Year’s resolutions and underscores that those who succeed often use nudges to maintain their focus and evade detrimental choices. These successful individuals employ methods such as making friendly wagers, engaging in public weigh-ins, and utilising personalised online programs to oversee their progress and stay committed.

A notable illustration is found in, a platform where more than 100,000 people have created commitment contracts to realise their aims. By defining goals, setting deadlines, and even staking money on their achievements, users gain a financial incentive to accomplish their targets. This real-world example vividly demonstrates how nudges can be employed to reshape behaviour and ease the accomplishment of aspirations. The book emphasises that a multitude of individuals are leveraging nudges as effective means to attain their goals.

Strengths and weaknesses, according to readers’ reviews


  • Thaler and Sunstein’s work builds upon the extensive research in behavioural economics, distinguishing their insights as informed and relevant.

  • Presents eye-opening insights on various life aspects, delivering transformative ideas and perspectives.

  • Merges political and economic perspectives, showcasing the interdisciplinary nature of nudges in influencing policy debates.


  • Despite being marketed as an international edition, the majority of examples discussed are US-centric, undermining the claim of global applicability.

Best quotes from ‘Nudge’

“A nudge, as we will use the term, is any aspect of the choice architecture that alters people’s behavior in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives.”
“People are unrealistically optimistic even when the stakes are high. About 50 percent of marriages end in divorce, and this is a statistic most people have heard. But around the time of the ceremony, almost all couples believe that there is approximately a zero percent chance that their marriage will end in divorce – even those who have already been divorced!”
“We are also greatly influenced by consumption norms within the relevant group. A light eater eats much more in a group of heavy eaters. A heavy eater will show more restraint in a light-eating group. The group average thus exerts a significant influence. But there are gender differences as well. Women often eat less on dates; men tend to eat a lot more, apparently with the belief that women are impressed by a lot of manly eating.”

Final takeaway

‘Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness’ serves as an illuminating guide into the complexities of human decision-making. Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein seamlessly blend psychology, economics, and policy analysis to introduce the concept of nudges subtle alterations in context that help us navigate the maze of choices we encounter daily. This book offers a fresh lens through which to perceive decision-making and empowers individuals, institutions, and governments to utilise choice architecture in ways that guide people toward making better decisions without constraining their freedom of choice.

Whether you are intrigued by psychology or economics, or simply seeking strategies to enhance your decision-making prowess, ‘Nudge’ offers a thought-provoking journey that can reshape the way you perceive and navigate choices.

Where to buy

You may purchase ‘Nudge’ on Amazon at the best price. It is available in paperback and audio versions, so you may choose an option that appeals to you the most.

Healthypedia FAQ

‘Nudge’ goes beyond traditional psychology and economics discussions by focusing on how external cues can shape decision-making, offering practical ways to design choices that lead to more favourable outcomes.

The book is well-researched and draws from a wide range of behavioural science studies and real-world examples. It has also garnered attention and praise from academics, policymakers, and readers alike for its insights into decision-making and its practical applications.

Yes, the authors present complex concepts in a clear and engaging manner, making the book understandable and relatable to a broad audience. The book uses real-life examples and anecdotes to illustrate its points, ensuring that readers from various backgrounds can grasp the concepts and insights presented.

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